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การวัดค่าความหนากัลวาไนซ์ Measuring Galvanizing Thickness

This article details the use of DeFelsko Coating Thickness Gages within the zinc galvanizing industry. It describes different types of hand held gages, the measurement process, several precautions to be taken, and a Q&A section for the most commonly asked questions concerning this application.

Protecting Steel From Corrosion
Steel corrodes when an electrolyte connects anodes and cathodes on a steel surface. The formation of the corrosion cell causes a flaky iron oxide known as rust.

To avoid rust, something must prevent the formation of the corrosion cell. Two common methods for preventing corrosion on steel are:

Cathodic protection (by using a sacrificial anode).
Creating a barrier to block electrolytes from contacting the steel such as paint and other protective coatings.
Photo of a galvanized steel surface
Galvanizing is the process by which a sacrificial anode layer of zinc is applied to the surface of a fabricated steel part to provide corrosion protection. The final step in this process is the inspection of:

Zinc coating thickness
Visual appearance
Adhesion of zinc to a steel substrate
Uniformity of the zinc coating thickness
The thickness of the galvanized coating is directly related to:

Service life
Amount of corrosion protection
A thicker coating of galvanize results in a longer service life for the coated part. Consequently, inspection of zinc coating thickness is the single most important step in determining the quality of a galvanized coating.

How to Measure Galvanized Thickness
The size, shape, and number of pieces to be tested will dictate the appropriate test method. Specified test methods are categorized as either destructive or non-destructive.

There are four ways to measure the galvanization thickness:

Magnetic principle coating thickness gages
Stripping and weighing
Weighing the part before and after galvanizing
Optical microscopy (ASTM B487)
Photo collage of a man using optical microscopy to determine zinc thickness. Includes photo of the measured sample indicating zinc thickness

The most practical way to measure galvanizing thickness is the non-destructive method utilizing the magnetic principle for determining coating thickness. This test is:

Simple, fast, and inexpensive
In accordance with international standards including ASTM D7091, CSA G 164-M and ISO 2808
Because it is non-destructive, magnetic thickness measurement is the most common method of evaluating galvanizing coating thickness.

Magnetic Principle Galvanizing Thickness Gauges
Coating thickness gages that operate on a magnetic principle are designed to measure non-magnetic coatings applied to ferrous metals. The three most common types of magnetic principle thickness gages fall into one of two categories:

Image of three galvanizing thickness gauges; PosiTest, PosiPen, and the PosiTector 6000
Comparing Magnetic Galvanizing Gauge Types

  1. Mechanical Galvanizing Thickness Gauges

Measure the strength required to pull a magnet away from steel. The thicker the zinc, the weaker the attractive magnetic force.
No calibration adjustment required
Simple and rugged

  1. Electronic Galvanizing Thickness Gauges

‍Measure the change in flux density using electronic circuitry.
Clear, digital readout
Variety of specialized probe styles
Many offer built-in memory
Adjustments can be made for substrate conditions
Magnetic Galvanizing Thickness Gauge Features
Mechanical-Pen Style

No calibration adjustment required
Very small, unique magnet allows pinpoint placement
Ideal for use on small, hot, or difficult-to-access measurement locations
±10% accuracy

Mechanical-Dial Type

No calibration adjustment required
Simple, durable, universally accepted
No batteries/electronics
GO/NO-GO button can be preset for rapid measurement
±5% accuracy
Photo of the PosiTector 6000 galvanizing thickness gauge

Fast and simple operation
Manual calibration adjustments are possible for increase accuracy
Easy-to-read digital display
Versatile – variety of integral or cabled probes
Connectivity options – direct printing, USB, WiFi, Bluetooth
Statistical capabilities – averaging, min/max
Powerful software for reporting measurement data
Built-in memory
±1% accuracy

How to Take a Galvanize Thickness Measurement
Photo of a galvanized thickness probe measuring on a galvanized boltPhoto of galvanized railings and dividers along a roadside

‍Follow gage manufacturer’s instructions
Verify gage accuracy regularly using reference standards
Ensure that the test surface is free from dirt, grease, oxide, and corrosion products
Measurement points should be chosen to avoid obvious peaks or irregularities in the coating
A sufficient number of readings should be taken to obtain a true average coating thickness
When utilizing a mechanical coating thickness gauge, perform the following steps:

To compensate for the influence of substrate conditions (including mass, metallurgy, roughness, temperature and curvature), measure the uncoated substrate/part at a number of spots to obtain a representative average value. This average value is called the “base metal reading” or “BMR”.
Measure the zinc thickness at the number of spots required by the relevant procedure or standard.
Subtract the base metal reading (BMR) from the gage reading to obtain the galvanizing thickness.
When utilizing an electronic coating thickness gauge, perform the following steps:

To compensate for the influence of substrate conditions (including mass, metallurgy, roughness, temperature and curvature), check zero on the uncoated substrate/part and adjust if necessary.
Check accuracy by measuring shims placed on the uncoated substrate.
Measure the galvanized part. The coating thickness gage reading indicates the thickness of the applied galvanizing.
Measuring Duplex Coating Systems
Duplex coating systems use a combination of two corrosion protection systems—typically paint or powder coating over galvanized steel (hot-dip, electro or zinc spray metallizing). The corrosion protection which results from a duplex coating system is superior to either protection system used independently.

DeFelsko’s PosiTector 6000 FNDS coating thickness gage non-destructively measures the individual thicknesses of both the paint and the zinc galvanize layers in a duplex coating system with a single reading.

See our Duplex Coating System Thickness Measurement application note to learn more.

Photo of a PosiTector 6000 FNDS measuring duplex coating thickness
Galvanized Coating Thickness Conversions
Magnetic coating thickness gages report measurement values in units of linear distance, not coating weight. However, the gage reading can easily be converted to an expression of coating weight.

Table of galvanized thickness unit conversions from coating weight to linear distances
The preceding chart is characterized in the text below:

To convert from: | To: | Multiply by:

• oz./ft2 | mils | 1.684

• oz./ft2 | microns | 42.78

• oz./ft2 | gm/m2 | 305.15

• mils | microns | 25.4

• mils | gm/m2 | 181.18

• mils | oz./ft2 | 0.5938

• microns | gm/m2 | 7.133

• microns | oz./ft2 | 0.023375

• microns | mils | 0.03937

• gm/m2 | oz./ft2 | 0.03277

• gm/m2 | mils | 0.005519

• gm/m2 | microns | 0.14019

Example Conversions

Example A: Imagine you take a measurement on a steel coil coated with zinc galvanize using a PosiTector 6000 F gage and obtain a single-side thickness reading of “0.35 mils.” This can be easily converted to oz/ft² using the following method:

Multiply the gage reading of 0.35 mils by 2 to account for both sides of the panel (0.70 mils)
Multiply 0.70 by a factor of 0.5938 to convert to oz/ft² (0.4157 oz/ft²)
0.4157 oz/ft² of zinc galvanize indicates G40 weight (0.40 oz/ft² minimum average, total of both sides per ASTM A653)
Example B: Alternatively, you can quickly confirm that a galvanized steel sheet meets a specific coating weight. According to ASTM A653, a G90 coating designation means the weight of zinc on both sides of a steel sheet is 0.90 oz/ft².

However, a magnetic thickness gage measures only one side. Therefore:

0.45 oz./ft² x 1.684 = 0.76 mils per side, or 0.45 oz./ft² x 42.78 = 19 microns per side

Example C: To calculate grams/meter² from a result displayed in microns, first multiply the gage reading (or the average of a series of readings) by a factor of 2, and then multiply that result by 7.133. The final calculation will indicate the coating weight for both sides of the coated part.

Q & A
Q: Why does it seem that I never obtain the same gage reading twice?
A: Although the galvanized surface may appear smooth, microscopic surface roughness exists on both the zinc and steel. Therefore, the best representation of coating thickness is obtained by averaging a series of readings as per ASTM A123.

Q: Can I use a magnetic coating thickness gage to measure coating weight?
A: Magnetic coating thickness gages report measurement values in units of linear distance, not coating weight. However, the gage reading can easily be converted to an expression of coating weight using a conversion table or multiplication factor.

Chart displays galvanized coating designations and their thickness per side in mils and microns
Q: What should a coating thickness gauge read on a G90 galvanized coating?
A: According to ASTM A653, a G90 coating designation means the weight of zinc on both sides of a steel sheet is 0.90 oz./ft2

A magnetic thickness gauge measures only one side.


0.45 oz./ft2 x 1.684 = 0.76 mils per side
0.45 oz./ft2 x 42.78 = 19 microns per side
Excerpts from ASTM A123 Standard Specification for Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and Steel Products:

The specimen coating thickness shall be the average of a minimum of 5 readings at widely dispersed points.
This average value shall be not less than one coating thickness grade lower than the value listed in the appropriate specification.
Thickness should be between 1.4 and 3.9 mils (35 and 100 µm) depending on the coating grade.
ASTM A123/A123M—Standard Specification for Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and Steel Products

ASTM E376—Standard Practice for Measuring Coating Thickness by Magnetic-Field or Eddy-Current (Electromagnetic) Examination Methods

ASTM A153/A153M—Standard Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Steel Hardware

ASTM A653/A653M—Standard Specification for Steel Sheet, Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) or Zinc-Iron Alloy-Coated (Galvannealed) by the Hot-Dip Process

ASTM A767/A767M—Standard Specification for Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement

ASTM D7091—Standard Practice for Nondestructive Measurement of Dry Film Thickness of Nonmagnetic Coatings Applied to Ferrous Metals and Nonmagnetic, Non-conductive Coatings Applied to Non- Ferrous Metals